Welcome to the Research Guide for Teaching, Learning, and Artificial Intelligence! This guide was created as a resource in response to the rise in Artificial Intelligence - especially ChatGPT. As this has become a relevant topic for educators, we hope to help you understand it more and learn how to work with it. Here you will find resources, videos, and tips for beginning your research on the topic. Use the tabs at the top to navigate the guide.
ChatGPT Explained in 5 Minutes
How Does ChatGPT Work?
SEU's Policy on AI
Students should learn how to use AI text generators and other AI-based assistive resources (collectively, AI tools) to enhance rather than damage their developing abilities as writers, coders, communicators, and thinkers. Instructors should ensure fair grading for both those who do and do not use AI tools. The GAIA policy stresses transparency, fairness, and honoring relevant stakeholders.
Publication Date: 2019-07-29
The Institutional Research profession is currently experimenting with many strategies to assess institutional effectiveness in a manner that reflects the letter and spirit of their unique mission, vision, and values. While a "best-practices" approach to the measurement and assessment of institutional functions is prevalent in the literature, a machine learning approach that synthesizes these parts into a coherent and synergistic approach has not emerged.
Publication Date: 2019-03-29
Six essays by artificial intelligence pioneer Marvin Minsky on how education can foster inventiveness, paired with commentary by Minsky's former colleagues and students. Marvin Minsky was a pioneering researcher in artificial intelligence whose work led to both theoretical and practical advances. His work was motivated not only by technological advancement but also by the desire to understand the workings of our own minds. Minsky's insights about the mind provide fresh perspectives on education and how children learn.
Publication Date: 2022-11-15
Artificial intelligence is part of our daily lives. How can we address its limitations and guide its use for the benefit of communities worldwide? Artificial intelligence (AI) has evolved from an experimental computer algorithm used by academic researchers to a commercially reliable method of sifting through large sets of data that detect patterns not readily apparent through more rudimentary search tools.
Articles for Faculty
ChatGPT in the Classroom
In the News
ChatGPT in the Classroom - Practical Tips
This depends on if you are using the artificial intelligence (like ChatGPT) as a tool or as a content creator. Think of the item created by artificial intelligence (AI) as if it were an author, in the Citation Styles - Plagiarism Guide we discuss how one needs to quote or paraphrase an author's work. If you were to take the work of the AI and use it as your own, you would be plagiarising.
The use of artificial intelligence in academia is a hot topic in the education field. The use of chatAPIs and GPT-3 in higher education has the potential to offer a range of benefits, including increased student engagement, collaboration, and accessibility.
Was This Written by AI?
Tools are being created to help us figure out if something was created by artificial intelligence such as ChatGPT. Please know that these tools are not without flaw, and students can use them as well. However, you may find them helpful.
GPTZero: This is a free, non-commercial, tool. Documents are scored by how much may have been written by AI. Each sentence written by AI is highlighted.
ChatGPT: You can actually use ChatGPT to check if something was generated by AI. Simply ask it "was this created by artificial intelligence?" and put in the piece of work.
Tips for Using AI in the Classroom
Librarians have been helping both faculty and students cope with the challenges, temptations, and opportunities related to plagiarism for decades. In many ways, teaching during the age of AI and ChatGPT is simply an extension of those concerns, albeit packaged in new ways. The following tips were created by librarians across the country based on their experience in instructional design and helping faculty create effective research assignments. We hope they help you consider possibilities:
- Have explicit conversations about AI and how it works, what it can and can’t do, and what you expect from students. Students need to grapple with these questions because they’ll face real-world choices about AI outside of school, too.
- Try to get a result for your assignment from ChatGPT. How did you have to phrase your request? What kind of results did you get? What’s missing? How can you change your assignment prompt, your grading rubric, or your lessons to make ChatGPT less useful for the students?
- Do an activity (individual or in groups) where students use ChatGPT and analyze the results to identify what it gets right, what’s missing, etc. (Keep in mind, there are many unanswered questions about privacy, ethics, and regulation you may want to consider before having students use the tool.)
- Place an emphasis on incorporating sources into writing (either outside sources or your primary texts). Currently, ChatGPT struggles to integrate sources effectively, although as the technology improves this may not remain the case.
- Have students turn in work along the way instead of just a final project. Require steps such as a topic proposal, a research question, an annotated bibliography, multiple drafts, etc. This helps you check that students are doing their own work, gives you a chance to offer feedback, and helps students spread out the work of a big project.
- Include self-reflection assignments, where students explain their thinking process and/or steps. This could take the form of a post-assignment reflection paper, a weekly progress journal, etc. This encourages metacognition, helps you verify student work, and is a type of writing ChatGPT can't really replicate.
- Focus on current events. Right now, ChatGPT has "limited knowledge of world and events after 2021" (from "ChatGPT FAQ"). Undoubtedly this will change eventually, but for now current events are an excellent way to discourage the use of ChatGPT specifically.
- Use time in class to work on assignments, either to write an in-class essay or simply to work on a part of a larger project. Circulate and check out student progress, answer questions, offer guidance, etc. This way you can see student work taking shape.
- Alter your grading rubric to prioritize skills that are harder for an AI to achieve, such as creativity/originality, connecting ideas to other class work, comprehensiveness, integrating sources effectively, etc.
- Get students to respond to something from class. For instance, require an essay to respond to an in-class discussion (consider providing an alternative for students unable to attend class), a YouTube video watched as homework, an on-campus speaker event, etc. Ask students to include specific details and engage critically with the event in a way an AI/bot can't replicate.
- Incorporate more team work. Obviously, this can’t prevent a group from using a bot to write an essay, but accountability to a team can cut down on the chances of it happening.
- Go beyond text when you can. Visual displays, posters, models, demonstrations, performances, infographics, debates, videos, portfolios, etc. are engaging ways to demonstrate learning as well as discourage the use of AI. (Keep in mind, if text is involved somehow, ChatGPT can probably still write it. For example, it understands prompts like “write a play about…” or “write a podcast script about…”.)
- Follow up on sources students cite. Track down the sources and see if they exist, if they’re properly represented, if quotations are accurate, etc. (ChatGPT often lists sources that are irrelevant or ones that don’t even exist.) You can even require students to submit copies of their sources with their work.
See "10 Ideas for Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism" from the Harper Academy Newsletter for more details.
Citing the Source
If you choose to integrate AI such as ChatGPT into your courses, you may consider asking students to cite their sources. The following guide is a helpful starting point for citation of AI-generated texts.
Regarding source citations for AI-generated texts, like ChatGPT, the APA still needs to formulate a guideline. For now, the advice is to refer to software-generated texts like you would refer to software. Use OpenAI when you mention the author. In addition, include the generated text as an appendix to your report, so the reader or assessor is able to read the content directly.
OpenAI. (2023, 30 November). ChatGPT: Optimizing language models for dialogue (Version 3.5) [Web application]. Retrieved on January 2, 2024, from https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt/
Parenthetical citation: (OpenAI, 2023)
Narrative citation: OpenAI (2023)
Indicate in your text which part is generated by ChatGPT, by using a citation or paraphrase and which orders were given to generate the text. For example:
To formulate the problem statement, we utilized ChatGPT (OpenAI, 2023) with the order “…”.
At “…” write the text/order used for the chatbot.
If you included the by chatbot generated text in the appendix of your report, you only need to refer to the appendix.
AI Citing Can Be Tricky - Here are Some Things We Know
What ChatGPT Says About Citing
For what it's worth, here is ChatGPT's response when given the prompt "how do you cite an answer from ChatGPT" (on February 15, 2023):
There is no standard way to cite an answer from ChatGPT, as it is a machine learning model and not a published work. However, if you would like to reference an answer provided by ChatGPT in a research paper or academic work, you could use the following format:
According to OpenAI's ChatGPT (OpenAI, n.d.) [insert answer provided by ChatGPT here].
You can also include the date when the response was generated, since the model's knowledge cut off may change over time.
It is important to note that answers provided by ChatGPT are generated based on the information it has been trained on, and may not always be accurate or reliable. It is always a good idea to fact-check any information you receive from an AI model and consider the source when using it in any kind of publication.
Ted Talks on AI
ChatGPT & Turnitin
Podcasts | AI
ChatGPT for ESL